Toyota Corona was considered a large car in most markets manufactured from 1957 to 2001 by Toyota Motor Corporation. It was an upscale compact or mid-sized vehicle offered as a rear-wheel drive. The term ‘Corona’ is derived from a Latin word for ‘Crown’. Nissan Bluebird was the major competitor of the Toyota Corona at that time.
First Generation (1957–1959) T10 Series
The first generation Corona was designed by taking some parts from the preceding generation, Crown and Master. The 997 cc (60.87 cubic inch) OHV P series engine was preferred to power the vehicle. However, dealers had to restrict the power for taxi vehicles that was 910 cc (56 cubic inch) at that time. A monocoque chassis structure was introduced with an independent front suspension utilizing double wishbones. The chassis resulted in the vehicle weighing less than 1000 kg (2200 lb). T10 series was offered as 4-door sedan only.
Second Generation (1960-1964) T20, T30 Series
The second generation Tiara was an export model of Corona introduced for the first time in 1960. The Tiara was equipped with a 1.0-L P series motor followed by a more powerful motor, 1.5-L R series motor, in 1961. The 1.9-L engine was added in the lineup in 1964. Unlike Toyopet Crown that failed to make good sales in North America, Tiara did well. 318 units of Tiara were marketed in American market. Until the launch of the second generation Crown, Tiara was the only sedan sold in US.
The Corona 1500S Convertible and the Corona 1900S Sporty Sedan were revealed as two concept vehicles at Tokyo Motor Show in 1963.
Third Generation (Sep 1964-Jan 1970) T40, T50, T60, T70 Series
In 1964, the third generation was launched. It was offered in several body styles such as sedan, 2-door hardtop, 3-door van, 5-door station wagon, 5-door hatchback and two versions of pickup. An Italian designer, Battista Farina was behind the new looks of the car.
Toyoglide, the Toyota’s automatic transmission was first introduced on this vehicle. The 4R engine was used with a displacement of 1587 cc paired with a twin SU carburetor. The Australian version received 14R with one double barrel Aisin downdraft carburetor. From February 1967, the Corona began assembled in New Zealand.
The T60 and T70 series Corona also known as Corona Mark II, equipped with 1900cc I-4cyl engine, was introduced in September 1968.
Fourth Generation (Feb 1970-Jul 1973) T80, T90 Series
Launched in February 1970, the vehicle received a complete redesign and based on a different platform from Corona Mark II. 1500DX, 1600DX and the 1600SL were the three trim levels while the five engine variants include 1.5, 1.6 (12R), 1.7, 1.9 and 2.0 (18R) liter gasoline. The body styles were limited to 2-door hardtop coupe, 4-door sedan and 2-door station wagon. In 1970, a performance based Corona was released, called the Toyota Carina.
Fifth Generation (Aug 1973-May 1979) T100, T110 and T120 Series
T100 Series was launched in 1973 and offered as 2-door and 4-door sedans, a 2-door hardtop coupe and a 4-door station wagon. The engines used include a 1.6 and 2.0 liters SOHC, while the North American versions received a 20R 2.2-L engine. The high-end 2000GT sedan and Hardtop Coupe were limited to Japanese market. Australian models powered by 18R.
Sixth Generation (Sep 1978-Apr 1983) T130 Series
T130 Series was released in Japan in September 1978. It was offered as a 4-door Sedan, 2-door hardtop coupe, 4-door wagon and new 5-door liftback. Each model got featured Macpherson strut independent front suspension along with 4-link trailing arm rear suspension arrangement with a Panhard rod.
Different engine and transmission combinations were a 1.6-L 12R, 2T (and associated 12T) and 2.0-L 18R engines. In 1981, the 1.8-L 3T/13T engine replaced the 1.6-L 2T/12T. The North American Corona received the 2.2-L 20R engine similar to Celica. The 1.8-L and the 2.0-L engine were equipped with electronic fuel injection. In Japan the venerable 2.0-L 18R-G was offered in 2000GT. Australian version received a 1.9-L Holden Starfire engines mated to 4-speed or 5-speed Borg-Warner 505.
Seventh Generation (Jan 1982-1989) T140 Series
First appeared in January 1982 as sedan, coupe or wagon with rear-wheel drive and remained in production until 1984. The seventh generation also brought with it a diesel/LPG powered, high-roofed taxicab version used in Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Panama and Singapore.
The Australian Market received two models that were marketed from 1984 to 1987. The ST141 powered by a 2-litre 2S-C and the RT142 powered by a 2.4-litre fuel injected 22R-E. The Japanese market saw a 4-door wagon known as Van powered by a 1.5-litre 5K-J petrol engine, a 1.6-litre 12T-J petrol engine or a 1.8-litre 1C diesel engine.
Eight Generation (Jan 1983-Dec 1987) T150, T160 Series
In 1984, the Carina model was replaced with the Carina II in European market. Carina II was essentially a 1983 Corona model marketed in Japanese market with slightest of revisions in headlights, grille and trim.
Ninth Generation (Dec 1987—May 1992) T170 Series
It was in December 1987 when the T170 series was introduced in Japan that became Carina II in the Europe in 1988. Both Corona and Carina became in competition as Carina gradually increased in size.
Tenth Generation (1992-1998) T190 Series
The new T190 Series or Carina E appeared for the first time at Geneva Auto Show in March 1992. The units produced in UK were of low standard than the one produced in Japan.
Eleventh Generation (1996-2001) T210 Series
T210 Series was produced from 1996 to 2001 solely for the Japanese market including the Toyota Corona Premio that became an independent model later as Premio (ST21). It was available as Base Premio, Premio E and Premio G. Different 4-cylinder engine variants were a 1.6-L 4A-FE, a 1.8-L lean burn 7A-FE, and 2.0-L 3S-FE. Diesel engines include 2.0 L 2C-T that was replaced by more economical 2.2 L 3C-T afterwards.
Twelfth Generation T220 Series
It was offered as sedan, liftback and wagon. In Japan the wagon was sold as Caldina while the sedan and liftback versions were sold as Avensis in Europe. Avensis was available in 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 4-cylinder gasoline as well as diesel engines.